The Islamic Golden Age – Inventions and more

In times dominated by global Islamophobia and negative sentiments, do you wonder if the Muslims ever contributed significant to this world? As a matter of fact, contributions from Muslims changed the world for the better. Early Muslims had a laser focus on knowledge and practicing Islam. Talking about knowledge, this factor led them to innovate, explore and discover. The period of time which saw these magnificent innovations has been termed the Islamic Golden Age. The Islamic Golden Age is a historic time of fascinating scientific, cultural, and economic thriving within the history of Islam, dating from the 8th to 13th century.

The Islamic Golden Age

A Glimpse into the Golden Age


He was considered to be the greatest physician of the Islamic world. Also known as the ‘doctor’s doctor’. Apart from that, al-Razi was a celebrated alchemist. He classified minerals into 6 categories and discovered kerosene. He has written more than 200 books. One of his major contributions is Kitab al-Mansouri, influential medical books of the medieval ages.

Ibn al-Haytham

Ibn al-Haytham did some incredible work with optics. His works have earned him the title of the ‘father of optics’. His book, Kitāb al-Manāẓir states that vision first bounces of an object before directing to the eyes. Through his study of optics, he also invented the world’s first pinhole camera. Al-Haytham’s work led to the development of eyeglasses, microscopes, and telescopes. However, optics was just one of his forte. Ibn al-Haythm was a mathematician, physicist, and astronomer.


Al Khwarizmi is also known as the ‘father of algebra’. He was the mathematician who introduced the world to the concept of algebra. His book Al-Kitāb al-mukhtaṣar fī ḥisāb al-jabrwal-muqābala, derived the term al-jabr which (the base of ‘algebra’).


Al Zahrawi was born in modern-day Spain. He was a surgeon, physician, and a chemist, His celebrated book, Kitab al-Tasrif, is a thirty-volume medical encyclopedia based on his works. Interestingly, Al-Zahrawi was the first to describe abnormal pregnancy and hemophilia. He also introduced over 200 surgical instruments and emphasized the importance of a positive doctor-patient bond.


Al-Battani was a mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer who introduced several trigonometric relations (sine, cosine, and tangent), and his book, Kitāb az-Zīj, greatly included the astronomy known today (“Al-Battani”). He cataloged 489 starts and calculated a year to be 365 days, 5 hours, 46 minutes and 24 seconds; being only two minutes and 22 seconds off (99% accuracy).

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